The purpose of this presentation was to give individuals interested in pursuing a career in culinary arts the advice and access to education surrounding this field. Culinary arts covers the multidisciplinary field and areas of practice and study which includes culinary performing arts (cooking), gastronomy (food studies), bakery and pastry arts, food and beverage studies (bar, restaurant, barista), wine studies , food product development and health, hygiene and nutrition. So many individuals have come into this industry and gained local, national and international success.
In this article, the current knowledge and knowledge gaps in the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in livestock and plants and importance in terms of animal and human health are discussed. Some recommendations are provided for generation of the data required in order to develop risk assessments for AMR within agriculture and for risks through the food chain to animals and humans.
Understanding the properties, stability and transformations of the solid-state forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the development pipeline is of crucial importance for process-development, formulation development and FDA approval. Investigation of the polymorphism and polymorphic stability is a routine part of the pre-formulation studies. Vibrational spectroscopy allows the real-time in situ monitoring of phase transformations and probes intermolecular interactions between API molecules, between API and polymer in amorphous solid dispersions or between API and coformer in cocrystals or coamorphous systems and thus plays a major role in efforts to gain a predictive understanding of the relative stability of solid-state forms and formulations. Infrared (IR), near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopies, alone or in combination with other analytical methods, are important tools for studying transformations between different crystalline forms, between the crystalline and amorphous form, between hydrate and anhydrous form and for investigating solid-state cocrystal formation. The development of simple-to-use and cost-effective instruments on the one hand and recent technological advances such as access to the low-frequency Raman range down to 5 cm-1, on the other, have led to an exponential growth of the literature in the field. This review discusses the application of IR, NIR and Raman spectroscopies in the study of solid-state transformations with a focus on the literature published over the last eight years.
Few surveillance tools exist for monitoring tanning bed injuries. Twitter data were examined to identify and describe reports of tanning bed-caused burns. Tweets sent in 2013 containing keywords for tanning bed use and burning were content analyzed to determine whether a burn caused by a tanning bed was described, and additional data on tanning behavior and burn characteristics were extracted. After content assessment, 15,178 (64 %) tweets were found to describe a tanning bed-caused burn. Sites most reportedly burnt were buttocks (n = 3117), face/head (n = 1020), and chest/breast (n = 546). Alarmingly, 200 burns to the eyes/eyelids were mentioned. A total of 456 tweets described burning >1 time from a tanning bed. A total of 211 tweets mentioned falling asleep inside the tanning bed. In 2013, over 15,000 tweets reported tanning bed-caused burns. Twitter data provides unique insight into tanning behaviors and injuries not captured through traditional public health surveillance.
Cilium formation depends on intraflagellar transport trains that move bidirectionally along ciliary microtubules. Reporting in Science, Stepanek and Pigino (2016) employ correlative light and electron microscopy in algae to determine the ultrastructure of anterograde and retrograde trains and discover that these trains avoid collision by running on B- and A-tubules, respectively.