Animal mortality is indicative of animal health and welfare standards, which are of growing concern to the agricultural industry. The objective of the present study was to ascertain risk factors associated with mortality at multiple life stages in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy and beef herds. Males and females were stratified into seven life stages based on age (0 to 2 d, 3 to 7 d, 8 to 30 d, 31 to 182 d, 183 to 365 d, 366 to 730 d, and 731 to 1,095 d) whereas females with ≥1 calving event were further stratified into five life stages based on cow parity number (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Mortality was defined as whether an animal died during each life stage; only animals that either survived the entire duration or died during a life stage were considered. The data, following edits, consisted of 4,404,122 records from 1,358,712 animals. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the logit of the probability of mortality in each life stage separately. The odds of a young animal (i.e., aged ≤ 1,095 d) dying was generally greater if veterinary assistance was required at their birth relative to no assistance (odds ratio [OR]: 3.10 to 31.85), if the animal was a twin relative to a singleton (OR: 1.46 to 2.31) or if the animal was male relative to female (OR: 1.14 to 6.15). Moreover, the odds of a cow (i.e., females with ≥1 calving event) dying were greater when she required veterinary assistance at calving (OR: 2.69 to 7.55) compared with a cow that did not require any assistance, if she produced twin relative to singleton progeny (OR: 1.59 to 2.03) or male relative to female progeny (OR: 1.09 to 1.20). Additionally, the odds of a first or second parity cow dying when she herself had received veterinary assistance at birth were only 0.63 to 0.66 times that of a cow that was provided no assistance at birth. For both young animals and cows, the odds of dying generally increased with herd size, whereas animals residing in expanding herds had lower odds of dying. Results from the present study indicate that the risk factors associated with mortality in pasture-based, seasonal-calving herds are similar to those reported in literature in confinement, nonseasonal-calving herds. Moreover, the present study identifies that these risk factors are similar in both dairy and beef herds, yet the magnitude of the association often differs and also changes with life stage.