Total joint replacements (TJR) are costly procedures required to relieve pain and restore function in patients suffering from end-stage arthritis. Despite great progress in the development and durability of TJRs, the generation of prosthesis-associated wear particles over time leads to an inflammatory cascade which culminates in periprosthetic osteolysis. Studies suggest that wear particles drive the polarization/differentiation of immature macrophages towards a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype rather than an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype associated with normal bone and wound healing. This, in turn, contributes to the initiation of peri-implant inflammation. As a result, modulating M1 macrophage cytokine production has been recognised as a viable therapeutic option. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles on human macrophage polarization by comparing their effect on M1/M2-associated gene expression using real-time PCR. Furthermore, using immunoblotting to assess kinase activation, we sought to identify the intracellular signalling molecules activated by PMMA/HA particles and to determine whether pharmacological blockade of these molecules impacts on macrophage phenotype and cytokine production as measured by ELISA. We report that wear particles preferentially polarize macrophages towards an M1 phenotype, an effect that is dependent on activation of the membrane proximal kinase, Syk and members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family of signalling molecules. Pre-treatment of macrophages with Syk inhibitors (R788/piceatannol) or MAPK inhibitors (SB203580 and PD98059), not only prevents M1 polarization, but also attenuates production of key pro-inflammatory mediators that have been specifically implicated in periprosthetic osteolysis and osteoclast differentiation. It is now well established that wear-debris particles from implanted materials drive deleterious inflammatory responses which can eventually lead to implant loosening. In this study, we provide further insight into the specific cellular pathways activated by wear particles in primary human immune cells. We demonstrate that PMMA bone cement and hydroxyapatite, a commonly used biomaterial, drive the polarization of macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype and identify the specific signalling molecules that are activated in this process. Pre-treatment of macrophages with pharmacological inhibitors of these molecules in turn prevents macrophage polarization and dampens inflammatory cytokine production. Hence these signalling molecules represent potential therapeutic targets to treat or possibly prevent particulate induced osteolysis.
Trinity College Dublin ->