Journal Article


Brian A. Lawlor
Frank Kee
Rose Ann Kenny
Philip Hyland
Caoimhe Hannigan
Joanna E. McHugh Power



social longitudinal study psychology observational study adults structural model welfare of older people cohort study

Emotional and social loneliness, and depressive symptomatology among adults over 50 (2016)

Abstract Objectives: Previous research indicates that loneliness precedes depression, but little attention is paid to a putative reciprocal relation- ship between the two. We investigated whether a putative reciprocal causative relationship exists between depressive symptomatology, and emotional and social loneliness. Methods: Using the data of 301 participants aged 50 – 83 (62% female) who partook in two waves of an observational cohort study, we used cross-lagged panel analysis within a Structural Equation Model to investigate potential relationships between loneliness and depressive symptomatology at two time points, controlling for covariates age and sex. We then analysed data from 5698 participants in the Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing, aged 50 – 80 (66% female) to investigate whether depressive symptomatology is associated with changes in loneliness over time. Results: Emotional loneliness was predicted by depressive symptom- atology (beta = 0.280, p < 0.001), but not vice versa (beta = 0.054, p > 0.05). Social loneliness was also predicted by depressive symp- tomatology (beta = 0.128, p < 0.001), but not vice versa (beta = − 0.038, p > 0.05). We then investigated whether depressive symptomatology at baseline predicts a base-free measure of change in overall loneliness between two time points, and found that it did (beta = 0.004, p < 0.01, controlling for covariates) although anxiety symptomatology was a better predictor (beta = 0.331, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We report that depressive symptomatology precedes emotional and social loneliness although the link between depression and changes in loneliness over time is relatively small. Implications for clinicians treating patients with depressive symptomatology are considerable, given the deleterious outcomes associated with loneliness in later life.
Collections Ireland -> National College Ireland -> Status = Published
Ireland -> National College Ireland -> Subject = H Social Sciences: HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare: Welfare of older people
Ireland -> National College Ireland -> Subject = H Social Sciences
Ireland -> National College Ireland -> Type = Article
Ireland -> National College Ireland -> Subject = B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion: Psychology

Full list of authors on original publication

Brian A. Lawlor, Frank Kee, Rose Ann Kenny, Philip Hyland, Caoimhe Hannigan, Joanna E. McHugh Power

Experts in our system

Brian A. Lawlor
National College Ireland
Total Publications: 125
Frank Kee
National College Ireland
Total Publications: 25
Rose Anne Kenny
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 252
Philip Hyland
National College of Ireland
Total Publications: 231
Caoimhe Hannigan
National College Ireland
Total Publications: 58
Joanna E. McHugh Power
National College Ireland
Total Publications: 32