Type

Journal Article

Authors

Guy McGrath
Simon John More
Klaas Frankena
Inma Aznar

Subjects

Veterinary

Topics
transmission statistical analysis badgers bacille calmette gu rin bcg basic reproduction ratio vaccine efficacy for infectiousness mycobacterium bovis vaccine efficacy for susceptibility

Quantification of Mycobacterium bovis transmission in a badger vaccine field trial (2018)

Abstract In the UK and Ireland, Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination of badgers has been suggested as one of a number of strategies to control or even eradicate Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers. In this manuscript, we present the results of a badger field trial conducted in Ireland and discuss how the novel trial design and analytical methods allowed the effects of vaccination on protection against infection and, more importantly, on transmission to be estimated. The trial area was divided into three zones North to South (A, B and C) where vaccination coverages of 0, 50 and 100%, respectively, were applied. Badgers were trapped over a 4 year period. Badgers were assigned to either placebo or vaccine treatment, with treatment allocation occurring randomly in zone B. Blood samples were collected at each capture, and serology was performed in these samples using a chemiluminescent multiplex ELISA system (Enfer test). The analysis aimed to compare new infections occurring in non-infected non-vaccinated badgers to those in non-infected vaccinated ones, while accounting for the zone in which the badger was trapped and the infection pressure to which this individual badger was exposed. In total, 440 records on subsequent trappings of individual non-infected badgers were available for analysis. Over the study period, 55 new infections occurred in non-vaccinated (out of 239 = 23.0%) and 40 in vaccinated (out of 201 = 19.9%) badgers. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with a cloglog link function was used for analysis. Statistical analysis showed that susceptibility to natural exposure with M. bovis was reduced in vaccinated compared to placebo treated badgers: vaccine efficacy for susceptibility, VES, was 59% (95% CI = 6.5%–82%). However, a complete lack of effect from BCG vaccination on the infectivity of vaccinated badgers was observed, i.e. vaccine efficacy for infectiousness (VEI) was 0%. Further, the basic reproduction ratio as a function of vaccination coverage (p) (i.e. R(p)) was estimated. Given that the prevalence of M. bovis infection in badgers in endemic areas in Ireland is approximately 18%, we estimated the reproduction ratio in the unvaccinated population as R(0) = 1.22. Because VEs was now known, the reproduction ratio for a fully vaccinated population was estimated as R(1) = 0.50. These results imply that with vaccination coverage in badgers exceeding 30%, eradication of M. bovis in badgers in Ireland is feasible, provided that the current control measures also remain in place.
Collections Ireland -> University College Dublin -> CVERA Research Collection
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> Veterinary Medicine Research Collection
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> School of Veterinary Medicine
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> College of Health and Agricultural Sciences
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis (CVERA)
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> Institutes and Centres

Full list of authors on original publication

Guy McGrath, Simon John More, Klaas Frankena, Inma Aznar

Experts in our system

1
Guy McGrath
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 52
 
2
S J More
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 213
 
3
Klaas Frankena
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 8
 
4
I Aznar
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 10