Journal Article


M. D. Gilchrist
Stephen Kiernan



functionally graded foam functionally graded foam material cellular density foam finite element constitutive abaqus

Towards a virtual functionally graded foam: Defining the large strain constitutive response of an isotropic closed cell polymeric cellular solid (2010)

Abstract Functionally graded materials have been defined by Hirai[1] to be “a new generation of engineered materials wherein the microstructural details are spatially varied through a non-uniform distribution of the reinforcement phase(s)...”. Extending this paradigm to the field of cellular solids, a functionally graded foam material (FGFM) may be thought of as a foam for which microstructural features such as cell size, and strut and wall (for closed cell foams) thickness vary in a continuous manner across the volume of the foam. These features may be varied globally by variation of the foam’s density, ρf. Cui et al., [2] and Kiernan et al., [3] have shown some potential benefits of FGFMs under dynamic conditions using discretely layered Finite Element foam models. In their work the ABAQUS crushable foam model defines the constitutive response of each element layer of a regularly shaped specimen. The density, and corresponding Young’s modulus, Ef, and hardening law of each layer is unique, thus defining a quasi-graded response. Motivated by their results, this paper attempts to describe the large strain compressive response of a generic foam, ultimately using ρf as the only independent input parameter. Experimental data is gathered from a number of expanded polystyrene foam specimens of different densities, and important foam characteristics are defined as functions of ρf. Results compare excellently to those of the ABAQUS foam model, and limitations of the modeling approach are discussed.
Collections Ireland -> University College Dublin -> Mechanical & Materials Engineering Research Collection
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> College of Engineering & Architecture
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Full list of authors on original publication

M. D. Gilchrist, Stephen Kiernan

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M. D. Gilchrist
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 172