Journal Article


Georges Van der Perre
Peter Verschueren
Michael D Gilchrist
Julie A. Motherway
Jos Vander Sloten


Physiotherapy & Sport

humans head impact physiology viscosity elastic modulus female skull fracture anatomy histology skull traumatic brain injury cranial bone male dynamic loading weight bearing compressive strength anisotropy stress mechanical aged 80 and over cadaver mechanical properties tensile strength adult human loading rate

The mechanical properties of cranial bone: The effect of loading rate and cranial sampling position (2009)

Abstract Linear and depressed skull fractures are frequent mechanisms of head injury and are often associated with traumatic brain injury. Accurate knowledge of the fracture of cranial bone can provide insight into the prevention of skull fracture injuries and help aid the design of energy absorbing head protection systems and safety helmets. Cranial bone is a complex material comprising of a three-layered structure: external layers consist of compact, high-density cortical bone and the central layer consists of a low-density, irregularly porous bone structure. In this study, cranial bone specimens were extracted from 8 fresh-frozen cadavers (F=4, M=4; 81±11 yrs old). 63 specimens were obtained from the parietal and frontal cranial bones. Prior to testing, all specimens were scanned using a μCT scanner at a resolution of 56.9μm. The specimens were tested in a three-point bend set-up at different dynamic speeds (0.5, 1 and 2.5 m/s). The associated mechanical properties that were calculated for each specimen include the 2nd moment of inertia, the sectional elastic modulus, the maximum force at failure, the energy absorbed until failure and the maximum bending stress. Additionally, the morphological parameters of each specimen and their correlation with the resulting mechanical parameters were examined. It was found that testing speed, strain rate, cranial sampling position and intercranial variation all have a significant effect on some or all of the computed mechanical parameters. A modest correlation was also found between percent bone volume and both the elastic modulus and the maximum bending stress.
Collections Ireland -> University College Dublin -> Mechanical & Materials Engineering Research Collection
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> College of Engineering & Architecture
Ireland -> University College Dublin -> School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

Full list of authors on original publication

Georges Van der Perre, Peter Verschueren, Michael D Gilchrist, Julie A. Motherway, Jos Vander Sloten

Experts in our system

M. D. Gilchrist
University College Dublin
Total Publications: 172