Drug accumulation studies with the anticancer agents adriamycin and vincristine were carried out on the MDR variant of the human lung cell lines DLKP, DLKP-A10 which overexpresses the MDR associated P-glycoprotein efflux pump. Reduced cellular accumulation of both agents was observed in the resistant variant. The subsequent addition of verapamil and cyclosporin A resulted in partial restoration of cellular accumulation of both drugs in the DLKP-A10 resistant variant while complete restoration of cellular drug levels was observed in the SKMES-1/ADR cell line. These results suggested that the accumulation defect observed in the SKMES-1/ADR cell line was P-glycoprotein mediated and that accordingly, the cells exhibited characteristics consistent with the classical MDR phenotype. In contrast, while P-glycoprotein also appears to mediate a reduction in cellular drug accumulation in the DLKP-A10 cells, an alternative transport mechanism may also be present. No significant increase in the expression of either the MRP or LRP transport proteins was observed in the resistant cells. Metabolic inhibition by antimycin A (but not sodium azide or 2-deoxy-D-glucose) resulted in complete restoration of drug accumulation suggesting the presence of an alternative energy dependent transport mechanism. Fluorescent microscopy studies indicated different cellular localisation of the drug within the parental and resistant cells despite equivalent intracellular concentrations. These studies also revealed the presence of an ATP-dependent, vesicular sequestration mechanism which may be involved in the reduction of nuclear adriamycin accumulation in the DLKP-A10 cell line. This was indicated by observation of the disruption of cytoplasmic vesicles by antimycin A and also inhibition of cytoplasmic drug sequestration by the carboxylic ionophores, monensin and nigericin, accompanied by increased adriamycin accumulation and redistribution of the drug from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
Dublin City University ->