Supplementary fat positively influences reproductive performance in dairy cattle, although the mechanisms involved are not clearly defined. Our objective was to determine the effects of four different fat supplements on follicle development, plasma steroid hormone concentrations and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis in lactating dairy cattle. Forty-eight early lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (21 primiparous, 27 multiparous) were used in a completely randomized block design. Cows were fed the same basal TMR diet and received one of four fat supplements: (i) palmitic acid (18:0 fatty acid; Control), (ii) flaxseed (rich in 18:3 n-3 fatty acid; Flax), (iii) conjugated linoleic acid (a mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers; CLA), and (iv) fish oil (rich in 20:5 and 22:6 n-3 fatty acids; FO). All lipid supplements were formulated to be isolipidic; palmitic acid was added as necessary to provide a total lipid supplement intake of 500 g/day. Cows were synchronized to be in estrus on Day 15 of dietary treatment. All antral follicles were counted, and dominant follicles, subordinate follicles and corpora lutea were measured daily via transrectal ovarian ultrasonography for one complete estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected daily, and selected samples were analyzed for progesterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids. Estrus was synchronized a second time, and liver and endometrial biopsies were collected on Day 7 of the estrous cycle. Gene expression was evaluated for a number of genes involved in prostaglandin synthesis (endometrium) and fatty acid uptake and utilization (liver). Fat supplementation had little effect on follicle development. Cows receiving supplementary n-3 fatty acids had lesser plasma progesterone (P4) and smaller corpora lutea than cows receiving the CLA or Control supplements. Effects of fat supplementation on the endometrial expression of genes involved in PG synthesis were minor. Hepatic expression of SREBF1, ASCL1 and FABP1 was reduced by FO supplementation. Reduced plasma P4 in n-3 supplemented cows may lead to a suboptimal uterine environment for embryo development and hence reduced fertility compared to cows receiving the control or CLA supplements.