Reproductively normal crossbred beef heifers were individually offered a diet of barley straw and concentrate supplemented with one of four levels of a fish oil (FO) enriched supplement. Following oestrous cycle synchronisation, blood samples were collected at appropriate intervals for the measurement of progesterone (P(4)), oestradiol (E(2)), fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and metabolites. On days 15 and 16 of the cycle, oxytocin was administered intravenously and the prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) response was measured as venous concentrations of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). The heifers were slaughtered on days 17 or 18 of the oestrous cycle and endometrial tissue, rumen fluid and follicular fluid were collected for determination of fatty acid concentrations. In general there was no effect (P>0.05) of diet on plasma P(4) or E(2) concentrations. Increasing FO supplementation increased CL diameter on day 7 post-oestrus (P<0.0001) but had no effect on diameter on day of slaughter (P>0.05). On day 15, PGFM concentration was greater on the highest level of FO supplementation compared to controls (P<0.05), however, there were no differences between other diet comparisons (P>0.05). There was no effect of diet on PGFM concentration on day 16 (P>0.05). There was a strong positive relationship between plasma and uterine endometrial concentrations of both EPA (R(2)=0.86; P<0.0001) and total n-3 PUFA (R(2)=0.77; P<0.0001). IGF-1 concentrations increased on all diets and were greatest at the highest level of n-3 PUFA supplementation (P<0.05).