The complete nucleotide sequence of pEOC01, a plasmid (11,661 bp) from Pediococcus acidilactici NCIMB 6990 encoding resistance to clindamycin, erythromycin, and streptomycin was determined. The plasmid, which also replicates in Lactococcus and Lactobacillus species contains 16 putative open reading frames (ORFs), including regions annotated to encode replication, plasmid maintenance and multidrug resistance functions. Based on an analysis the plasmid replicates via a theta replicating mechanism closely related to those of many larger Streptococcus and Enterococcus plasmids. Interestingly, genes homologous to a toxin/antitoxin plasmid maintenance system are present and are highly similar to the omega-epsilon-zeta operon of Streptococcus plasmids. The plasmid contains two putative antibiotic resistance homologs, an ermB gene encoding erythromycin and clindamycin resistance, and a streptomycin resistance gene, aadE. Of particular note is the aadE gene which holds 100% identity to an aadE gene found in Campylobacter jejuni plasmid but which probably originated from a Gram-positive source. This observation is significant in that it provides evidence for recent horizontal transfer of streptomycin resistance from a lactic acid bacterium to a Gram-negative intestinal pathogen and as such infers a role for such plasmids for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes possibly in the human gut.