Journal Article


Jonathan N Coleman
Valeria Nicolosi
Alison Crossley
Clive Downing
Timothy J Pennycook
Niall Mcevoy
Georg S Duesberg
Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez
Eva K McGuire
Sean E O'Brien
and 19 others



production free graphene commercial applications shear shear rate large scale x ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Scalable production of large quantities of defect-free few-layer graphene by shear exfoliation in liquids. (2013)

Abstract To progress from the laboratory to commercial applications, it will be necessary to develop industrially scalable methods to produce large quantities of defect-free graphene. Here we show that high-shear mixing of graphite in suitable stabilizing liquids results in large-scale exfoliation to give dispersions of graphene nanosheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy show the exfoliated flakes to be unoxidized and free of basal-plane defects. We have developed a simple model that shows exfoliation to occur once the local shear rate exceeds 10(4) s(-1). By fully characterizing the scaling behaviour of the graphene production rate, we show that exfoliation can be achieved in liquid volumes from hundreds of millilitres up to hundreds of litres and beyond. The graphene produced by this method performs well in applications from composites to conductive coatings. This method can be applied to exfoliate BN, MoS2 and a range of other layered crystals.
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Full list of authors on original publication

Jonathan N Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi, Alison Crossley, Clive Downing, Timothy J Pennycook, Niall Mcevoy, Georg S Duesberg, Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Eva K McGuire, Sean E O'Brien and 19 others

Experts in our system

Jonathan Coleman
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 217
Valeria Nicolosi
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 67
Clive Downing
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 11
Niall Mcevoy
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 54
Georg Duesberg
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 116