Abstract Objective. Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias recurrently bleed, accounting for 3-5% of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The advent of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has led to an increased recognition of small bowel angiodysplasias (SBAs) but little is known about their etiology. Previous small cohorts and case reports suggest an equal gender incidence and associations with cardiovascular disease, renal impairment, and coagulopathies. Methods. Patients with SBA were identified from our SBCE database. A control group, in whom gastrointestinal bleeding had been excluded, was also identified. Information on patient demographics, past medical/surgical/social history and medications was prospectively obtained. Results. A total of 82 patients and 95 controls were identified. Data was available from 81% (n = 66) of SBA patients. The mean age of patients and controls was 66.9 years (35-90) and 69.2 years (54-77), and 60% (n = 40) and 58% (n = 55) were females, respectively. There was a higher rate of all comorbidities in the SBA group 92% (61/66) versus controls 76% (72/95) p < 0.002. Significant associations were found with: hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.8), ischemic heart disease (OR 4.25), arrhythmias (OR 4.36), valvular heart disease (OR 18), congestive heart failure (OR 4.22), chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR 8.4), chronic respiratory conditions (OR 2.0), and previous venous thromboembolism (VTE) (OR 6.4). Anticoagulant use was higher in patients with SBA, 50% (n = 33) versus 27% (n = 26) of controls, p < 0.002, specifically warfarin and asasantin retard. Conclusions. SBA occurs in elderly patients with cardiovascular disease and CKD, as previously suggested. This study identifies a previously unrecognised risk in females, patients with chronic respiratory conditions and VTE, and the use of warfarin and asasantin retard. These associations should raise awareness of possible underlying SBA in risk patients with anemia.
Trinity College Dublin ->