Type

Journal Article

Authors

Julian R Marchesi
Cormac G M Gahan
Colin Hill
Maire Begley
Brian V Jones

Subjects

Microbiology

Topics
gastrointestinal tract genetics microbiology metabolism choloylglycine hydrolase amino acid sequence enzymology methanobrevibacter n terminal nucleophile hydrolase amidohydrolases evolution molecular humans phylogeny metagenome

Functional and comparative metagenomic analysis of bile salt hydrolase activity in the human gut microbiome. (2008)

Abstract Bile salt hydrolases (BSHs) catalyze the "gateway" reaction in a wider pathway of bile acid modification by the gut microbiota. Because bile acids function as signaling molecules regulating their own biosynthesis, lipid absorption, cholesterol homeostasis, and local mucosal defenses in the intestine, microbial BSH activity has the potential to greatly influence host physiology. However, the function, distribution, and abundance of BSH enzymes in the gut community are unknown. Here, we show that BSH activity is a conserved microbial adaptation to the human gut environment with a high level of redundancy in this ecosystem. Through metagenomic analyses we identified functional BSH in all major bacterial divisions and archaeal species in the gut and demonstrate that BSH is enriched in the human gut microbiome. Phylogenetic analysis illustrates that selective pressure in the form of conjugated bile acid has driven the evolution of members of the Ntn_CGH-like family of proteins toward BSH activity in gut-associated species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BSH mediates bile tolerance in vitro and enhances survival in the murine gut in vivo. Overall, we demonstrate the use of function-driven metagenomics to identify functional anchors in complex microbial communities, and dissect the gut microbiome according to activities relevant to survival in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract.
Collections Ireland -> University College Cork -> PubMed

Full list of authors on original publication

Julian R Marchesi, Cormac G M Gahan, Colin Hill, Maire Begley, Brian V Jones

Experts in our system

1
Julian R Marchesi
University College Cork
Total Publications: 40
 
2
Cormac G M Gahan
University College Cork
Total Publications: 109
 
3
Colin Hill
University College Cork
Total Publications: 351
 
4
Maire Begley
University College Cork
Total Publications: 27
 
5
Brian V Jones
University College Cork
Total Publications: 7