Excessive energy intake and obesity lead to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) may be particularly detrimental on insulin sensitivity (SI) and on other components of the MetS. This study determined the relative efficacy of reducing dietary SFA, by isoenergetic alteration of the quality and quantity of dietary fat, on risk factors associated with MetS. A free-living, single-blinded dietary intervention study. MetS subjects (n = 417) from eight European countries completed the randomized dietary intervention study with four isoenergetic diets distinct in fat quantity and quality: high-SFA; high-monounsaturated fatty acids and two low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate (LFHCC) diets, supplemented with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs) (1.2 g per day) or placebo for 12 weeks. SI estimated from an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was the primary outcome measure. Lipid and inflammatory markers associated with MetS were also determined. In weight-stable subjects, reducing dietary SFA intake had no effect on SI, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, inflammation or blood pressure in the entire cohort. The LFHCC n-3 PUFA diet reduced plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations (P < 0.01), particularly in men. There was no effect of reducing SFA on SI in weight-stable obese MetS subjects. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation, in association with a low-fat diet, improved TAG-related MetS risk profiles.
University College Dublin ->