Journal Article


Claire Lawrence
Michael N Smolka
Nora C Vetter
Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot
Jean-Luc Martinot
Luise Poustka
Tomáš Paus
Penny Gowland
Maren Struve
Henrik Walter
and 20 others



measurement confirmatory factor analysis sdq european adolescents factor structure behavioural problems fit indices

New evidence of factor structure and measurement invariance of the SDQ across five European nations. (2015)

Abstract The main purpose of the present study was to analyse the internal structure and to test the measurement invariance of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-reported version, in five European countries. The sample consisted of 3012 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.20; SD = 0.83). The five-factor model (with correlated errors added), and the five-factor model (with correlated errors added) with the reverse-worded items allowed to cross-load on the Prosocial subscale, displayed adequate goodness of-fit indices. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five-factor model (with correlated errors added) had partial strong measurement invariance by countries. A total of 11 of the 25 items were non-invariant across samples. The level of internal consistency of the Total difficulties score was 0.84, ranging between 0.69 and 0.78 for the SDQ subscales. The findings indicate that the SDQ's subscales need to be modified in various ways for screening emotional and behavioural problems in the five European countries that were analysed.
Collections Ireland -> Trinity College Dublin -> PubMed

Full list of authors on original publication

Claire Lawrence, Michael N Smolka, Nora C Vetter, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Jean-Luc Martinot, Luise Poustka, Tomáš Paus, Penny Gowland, Maren Struve, Henrik Walter and 20 others

Experts in our system

Michael N Smolka
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 56
Jean-Luc Martinot
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 45
Tomas Paus
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 56