Type

Journal Article

Authors

Andrea C Ferrari
John Hutchison
Satheesh Krishnamurthy
Peter Niraj
Yurii K Gun'ko
Michele Byrne
Georg Stefan Duesberg
Brendan Holland
I T McGovern
John Boland
and 10 others

Subjects

Chemistry

Topics
infra red spectrum analysis organic solvents graphite absorption spectroscopy chemistry large scale pyrrolidinones phase transition x ray walled carbon nanotubes surface energy chemical synthesis n methylpyrrolidone suspended graphene

High-yield production of graphene by liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite (2008)

Abstract Graphene is at the centre of nanotechnology research. In order to fully exploit its outstanding properties, a mass production method is necessary. Two main routes are possible: large-scale growth or large-scale exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate graphene dispersions with concentrations up to ~0.01 mg/ml by dispersion and exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents such as N-methyl- pyrrolidone. This occurs because the energy required to exfoliate graphene is balanced by the solvent-graphene interaction for solvents whose surface energy matches that of graphene. We confirm the presence of individual graphene sheets with yields of up to 12% by mass, using absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The absence of defects or oxides is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron, infra-red and Raman spectroscopies. We can produce conductive, semi-transparent films and conductive composites. Solution processing of graphene opens up a whole range of potential large-scale applications from device or sensor fabrication to liquid phase chemistry.
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Full list of authors on original publication

Andrea C Ferrari, John Hutchison, Satheesh Krishnamurthy, Peter Niraj, Yurii K Gun'ko, Michele Byrne, Georg Stefan Duesberg, Brendan Holland, I T McGovern, John Boland and 10 others

Experts in our system

1
Yurii K Gun'ko
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 49
 
2
Georg Duesberg
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 116
 
3
I T McGovern
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 7
 
4
John J Boland
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 82