Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are critical for the regulation of numerous biological processes. In cattle, microarray analyses identified STAT1 as a differentially expressed gene in the endometrium during the peri-implantation period. To gain new insights about STAT1 during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy, we investigated STAT1 transcript and protein expression, as well as its biological activity in bovine tissue and cells of endometrial origin. Pregnancy increased STAT1 expression on Day 16, and protein and phosphorylation levels on Day 20. In cyclic and pregnant females, STAT1 was located in endometrial cells but not in the luminal epithelium at Day 20 of pregnancy. The expression of STAT1 during the oestrous cycle was not affected by progesterone supplementation. In vivo and in vitro, interferon-tau (IFNT) stimulated STAT1 mRNA expression, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation in IFNT-stimulated endometrial cells, we demonstrated an increase of STAT1 binding on interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH), suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 (SOCS1, SOCS3) gene promoters consistent with the induction of their transcripts. Our data provide novel molecular insights into the biological functions of STAT1 in the various cells composing the endometrium during maternal pregnancy recognition and implantation.
University College Dublin ->