Type

Journal Article

Authors

Ian Robertson
Katherine Anne Johnson
Michael Gill
Louise Gallagher

Subjects

Psychiatry

Topics
response time variability attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adhd sustained attention response inhibition arousal executive function fast fourier transform

Dissociation in performance of children with ADHD and high-functioning autism on a task of sustained attention. (2007)

Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism are two neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prominent executive dysfunction, which may be underpinned by disruption within fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal circuits. We probed executive function in these disorders using a sustained attention task with a validated brain-behaviour basis. Twenty-three children with ADHD, 21 children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 18 control children were tested on the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART). In a fixed sequence version of the task, children were required to withhold their response to a predictably occurring no-go target (3) in a 1?9 digit sequence; in the random version the sequence was unpredictable. The ADHD group showed clear deficits in response inhibition and sustained attention, through higher errors of commission and omission on both SART versions. The HFA group showed no sustained attention deficits, through a normal number of omission errors on both SART versions. The HFA group showed dissociation in response inhibition performance, as indexed by commission errors. On the Fixed SART, a normal number of errors was made, however when the stimuli were randomised, the HFA group made as many commission errors as the ADHD group. Greater slow-frequency variability in response time and a slowing in mean response time by the ADHD group suggested impaired arousal processes. The ADHD group showed greater fast-frequency variability in response time, indicative of impaired top-down control, relative to the HFA and control groups. These data imply involvement of fronto-parietal attentional networks and sub-cortical arousal systems in the pathology of ADHD and prefrontal cortex dysfunction in children with HFA.
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Full list of authors on original publication

Ian Robertson, Katherine Anne Johnson, Michael Gill, Louise Gallagher

Experts in our system

1
Ian H Robertson
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 142
 
2
Katherine Johnson
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 29
 
3
Michael Gill
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 260
 
4
Louise Gallagher
Trinity College Dublin
Total Publications: 55