Early-onset emphysema attributed to α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is frequently overlooked and undertreated. RAPID-RCT/RAPID-OLE, the largest clinical trials of purified human α-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1 -PI; 60 mg kg(-1) week(-1) ) therapy completed to date, demonstrated for the first time that A1 -PI is clinically effective in slowing lung tissue loss in AATD. A posthoc pharmacometric analysis was undertaken to further explore dose, exposure and response. A disease progression model was constructed, utilizing observed A1 -PI exposure and lung density decline rates (measured by computed tomography) from RAPID-RCT/RAPID-OLE, to predict effects of population variability and higher doses on A1 -PI exposure and clinical response. Dose-exposure and exposure-response relationships were characterized using nonlinear and linear mixed effects models, respectively. The dose-exposure model predicts summary exposures and not individual concentration kinetics; covariates included baseline serum A1 -PI, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and body weight. The exposure-response model relates A1 -PI exposure to lung density decline rate at varying exposure levels. A dose of 60 mg kg(-1) week(-1) achieved trough serum levels >11 μmol l(-1) (putative 'protective threshold') in ≥98% patients. Dose-exposure-response simulations revealed increasing separation between A1 -PI and placebo in the proportions of patients achieving higher reductions in lung density decline rate; improvements in decline rates ≥0.5 g l(-1) year(-1) occurred more often in patients receiving A1 -PI: 63 vs. 12%. Weight-based A1 -PI dosing reliably raises serum levels above the 11 μmol l(-1) threshold. However, our exposure-response simulations question whether this is the maximal, clinically effective threshold for A1 -PI therapy in AATD. The model suggested higher doses of A1 -PI would yield greater clinical effects.
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland ->