Graphene is a promising candidate to succeed silicon based devices, and the conventional strategies for fabrication and testing of graphene-based electronics often utilise an electron beam. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of electron beam exposure on graphene devices. We realise reversible doping of on-chip graphene using a focused electron beam. Our results demonstrate site-specific control of carrier type and concentration achievable by modulating the charge distribution in the substrate. The effect of substrate-embedded charges on carrier mobility and conductivity of graphene is studied, with a dielectric screening model proposed to explain the effective n-type and p-type doping produced at different beam energies. Multiple logic operations are thus implemented in a single graphene sheet by using site-specific e-beam irradiation. We extend the phenomenon to MoS2, generalising it to conductive two-dimensional materials. Our results are of importance to imaging, in situ characterisation and lithographic techniques employed to investigate 2D materials.
Trinity College Dublin ->