Symmetrical thalamic calcification or bilateral symmetrical thalamic gliosis presents at delivery with hypertonia, fixed flexion contractures and prominent bulbar signs, without preceding perinatal asphyxia. At post-mortem, there is evidence of bilateral symmetrical selective thalamic neuronal encrustation and gliosis. To date, 27 cases are published with no underlying diagnosis identified. Two affected children from singleton pregnancies were reported and therefore, a genetic cause proposed. No previous reports have performed genetic testing to confirm or reject this hypothesis. We report three additional cases of this rare condition, expanding the clinical and pathological phenotype. We performed trio whole exome sequencing, the first in this cohort of patients, and did not identify a pathogenic variant. As postulated in the original report, the likely underlying mechanism is antenatal hypoxia in the third trimester.
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