Cyberbullying is similar to, but distinct from, traditional bully–victim problems. In this continuously evolving area of interpersonal communication for children and young people, it is important to explore three important and interrelated issues. First, the developing nature of knowledge in the area and continuous technological developments require careful attention to how the subject is defined. Second, successful prevention and intervention approaches need to be evidence informed and to be developed within robust methodological frameworks. Third, further research regarding coping is required—from national and international responses to responses from technological providers, to responses at the school, family, and personal level. Research and applied practice in the area is maturing. It is time for those involved in the area to summarize known successes to date, and to refocus on the issues that will lead to a safer environment for children and young people so that they can enjoy the undoubted benefits of information and communication technologies.
I am currently moving office, which is a dangerous endeavour at any stage particularly when you are a hoarder like me – and contributing to this dilemma is that I am currently saturated in data all beautifully bound in glossy reports describing everything from student engagement, access data, graduate outcomes, completion rates, gender equality to staff profiles. As I fill another box with these hefty tomes, I am reminded of Jonathon Swift’s assertion that “We have enough religion to make us hate, but not enough to make us love one another.” In the context of Higher Education, we have enough evidence to make us realise that change is needed, but we never seem to have enough to make the change. Or perhaps we have reached a tipping point? – and that July 17th 2018 will go down in the history of Irish education as the date of a seismic shift! Well maybe not quite seismic, the first anniversary announcing the approval to create Ireland’s first Technological University passed off quietly.
The networked nature of criminals using the dark web is poorly understood and infrequently studied, mostly due to a lack of data. Rarer still are studies on the topological effectiveness of police interventions. Between 2014 and 2016, the Brazilian Federal Police raided a child pornography ring acting inside the dark web. With these data, we build a topic-view network and compare network disruption strategies with the real police work. Only 7.4% of the forum users share relevant content, and the topological features of this core differ markedly from other clandestine networks. Approximately 60% of the core users need to be targeted to fully break the network connectivity, while the real effect of the arrests was similar to random failure. Despite this topological robustness, the overall “viewership network” was still well disrupted by the arrests, because only 10 users contributed to almost 1/3 of the total post views and 8 of these were apprehended. Moreover, the users who were arrested provided a total of 60% of the viewed content. These results indicate that for similar online systems, aiming at the users that concentrate the views may lead to more efficient police interventions than focusing on the overall connectivity.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 09/01/2021 The co-crystallization of caffeine and urea was monitored and analyzed using infrared spectroscopy, Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The caffeine-urea co-crystal was shown to form spontaneously over several weeks under low energy mixing of the solids at room temperature and low relative humidity (<30%). Pre-milling the two coformers separately accelerated the process and the co-crystal formation could be detected within three days. When caffeine and urea were milled together, the physical mixture that was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction immediately after milling transformed to the co-crystal within hours of storage at room temperature and 30 % relative humidity. The scanning electron microscopy images of the milled sample indicated the role of inter-particle surface contact in the spontaneous solidstate reaction. Multivariate data analysis was used to find the optimum cooling crystallization conditions for obtaining co-crystals suitable for single crystal X-ray analysis.
Semithio-bambusurils are a unique family of anion-binding host macrocycles that form self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111). SAMs of semithio-bambusĳn]uril homologs with different cage sizes (1: n = 4; 2: n = 6) have been investigated using electrochemistry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Electrochemical measurements showed that electron transfer occurs via tunneling through the SAMs, and the low resistivity indicated an open layer architecture. XPS confirmed that thiocarbonyl sulfur atoms are chemisorbed to the Au(111) surface, and STM revealed the formation of ordered domains in a rectangular lattice for 1 and a highly ordered triangular/hexagonal lattice for 2. MD simulations substantiated the STM data by quantifying the balance between molecule–surface bonding, molecular conformations, and supramolecular packing that drive the formation of SAMs that maximize their surface coverage within the limits of conformational strain.
Shared opinions are an important feature in the formation of social groups. In this paper, we use the Axelrod model of cultural dissemination to represent opinion-based groups. In the Axelrod model, each agent has a set of features which each holds one of a set of nominally related traits. Survey data has a similar structure, where each participant answers each of a set of items with responses from a fixed list. We present an alternative method of displaying the Axelrod model by representing it as a bipartite graph, i.e., participants and their responses as separate nodes. This allows us to see which feature-trait combinations are selected in the final state. This visualisation is particularly useful when representing survey data as it illustrates the co-evolution of attitudes and opinion-based groups in Axelrod’s model of cultural diffusion. We also present a modification to the Axelrod model. A standard finding of the Axelrod model with many features is for all agents to fully agree in one cluster. We introduce an agreement threshold and allow nodes to interact only with those neighbours who are within this threshold (i.e., those with similar opinions) rather than those with any opinion. This method reliably yields a large number of clusters for small agreement thresholds and, importantly, does not limit to single cluster when the number of features grows large. This potentially provides a method for modelling opinion-based groups where as opinions are added, the number of clusters increase.
COVID-19 has now been declared a pandemic and new treatments are urgently needed as we enter a phase beyond containment. Developing new drugs from scratch is a lengthy process, thus impractical to face the immediate global challenge. Drug repurposing is an emerging strategy where existing medicines, having already been tested safe in humans, are redeployed to combat difficult-to-treat diseases. While using such repurposed drugs individually may ultimately not yield a significant clinical benefit, carefully combined cocktails could be very effective, as was for HIV in the 1990s; the urgent question now being which combination.
Cloud infrastructures are highly favoured as a computing delivery model worldwide, creating a strong societal dependence. It is therefore vital to enhance their resilience, providing persistent service delivery under a variety of conditions. Cloud environments are highly complex and continuously evolving. Additionally, the plethora of use-cases ensures requirements for persistent service delivery vary. As a contribution to knowledge, this work surveys resilience techniques for cloud environments. We apply a novel perspective using a layered model of traditional and emerging cloud paradigms. Works are then classified according to the Resilinets model. For each layer, the most common techniques with limitations are derived including an actor’s strength in influencing resilience in the cloud with each technique. We conclude with some future challenges to the field of resilient cloud computing.