The February 2020 general election will be remembered as the “change” election, when the two dominant parties of Irish politics, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, trailed behind Sinn Féin in voters' preferences for the first time. However, for the gender balance of Irish politics, much remained unchanged. While the number of women elected to Dáil Éireann increased by one, this marginal growth since the 2016 general election was deemed a disappointment by analysts and advocates alike. A review of candidacy reveals that Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael lag behind other parties in terms of the proportion of women selected and rely on the 'add-on' route to shore up their female candidacy base. The success rates of female candidates were markedly lower than those of their male counterparts in the Labour party, Greens, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael. However, the election was a good outing for women in the Social Democrats and Sinn Féin, and especially for Mary Lou McDonald, who became the first woman to lead a party to top-spot in an Irish general election. The legislative gender quota continued to play an integral role in ensuring a critical mass of women were selected to contest the general election. In many respects, 2020 was a consolidation election for the gender quota as it fits-in and integrates into party candidate selection processes. Yet, with just 22.5% of the seats in Dáil Éireann occupied by women, the legislative gender quota should be viewed as the start rather than the culmination of efforts to support women's candidacy and election.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 18/02/2021 In this article, we employed the nanosecond Z-scan technique to demonstrate the nonlinear optical response in Ge30Se55Bi15 thin films after thermal and photoannealing. The intensity dependent open aperture Z-scan traces reveal that all the samples, i.e., as-prepared, thermal, and photoannealed thin films, exhibit reverse saturable absorption. The experimental results indicate that both thermal and photoannealing can be efficiently used to enhance the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) compared to the as-prepared sample. We further demonstrate that the β value of thermally annealed and as-prepared samples increases significantly at higher intensities. On the contrary, the β value of the photoannealed sample does not exhibit appreciable changes against the intensity variation.
The demand for functional, nutraceutical and low calories dairy products has grown in recent decades. The effects of using different concentrations of polydextrose (1.5%, 3%, and 5%) on the textural and organoleptic properties of fat-free buffalo set yogurt (FFBS) were investigated. Addition of polydextrose significantly (P < .05) improved the water-holding capacity (WHC), sensory attributes and texture properties compared to the FFBS control yogurt. The sensory attributes, pH and WHC values were gradually decreased during cold storage of 21 days. Viability of yogurt culture was enhanced in the presence of 3% polydextrose compared with the FFBS control yogurt.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 03/01/2021 The present work shows the first ever implementation of two-order moments conserving finite volume scheme (FVS) for approximating a multidimensional aggregation population balance equations (PBE's) on a structured triangular grid. This scheme is based on preservation of the zeroth and conservation of the first order moments. Our main aim is to demonstrate the ability of the FVS to adapt the structured triangular grid well, hence, improves the accuracy of number density function as well as various order moments. The numerical results obtained by the FVS on a triangular grid are compared with the cell average technique. The comparison is also enhanced to illustrate that the FVS with a triangular grid provides the numerical results with higher precision and at lesser computational time as compared to the FVS with a rectangular grid. Additionally, we also study the mixing state of a bicomponent population of clusters (granules) characterized by the normalized variance of excess solute, Ï , a parameter that measures the deviation of the composition of each granule from the overall mean. It is shown that the accuracy of the total variance of the excess solute improves when a triangular grid is used in place of a rectangular grid.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 20/03/2021 enzyme activity is still of formidable challenge. Herein, we created a sacrificial templating method, using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as sacrificial templates to construct hollow covalent organic framework (COF) capsules for enzyme encapsulation. This strategy can provide capacious microenvironment to unleash enzyme molecules. The improved conformational freedom of enzymes, enhanced mass transfer and protective effect against external environment ultimately boosted the enzymatic activities. We also found that this strategy possesses high versatility that is suitable for diverse biomacromolecules, MOF templates and COF capsules. Moreover, the dimensions, pore sizes and shell thickness of COF capsules can be conveniently tuned, allowing for customizing bioreactors for specific functions. For example, coencapsulation of different enzymes with synergistic functions were successfully demonstrated using this bioreactor platform. This study not only opens up a new avenue to overcome the present limitations of enzymatic immobilization in porous matrixes but also provides new opportunities for construction of biomicrodevices or artificial organelles based on crystalline porous materials.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 19/02/2021 Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is an archetypal Mott material with a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near room temperature. In thin films, this transition is affected by substrate-induced strain but, as film thickness increases, the strain is gradually relaxed and the bulk properties are recovered. Epitaxial films of VO2 on (001)-oriented rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) relax substrate strain by forming a network of fracture lines that crisscross the film along well-defined crystallographic directions. This work shows that the electronic properties associated with these lines result in a pattern that resembles a “street map” of fully strained metallic VO2 blocks separated by insulating VO2 stripes. Each block of VO2 is thus electronically self-insulated from its neighbors and its MIT can be locally induced optically with a laser, or electronically via the tip of a scanning probe microscope, so that the films behave functionally as self-patterned pixel arrays.
In the nanometric regime, alumina films are often deposited by ALD methods yet in industrial applications, sputtered films thinner than 40 nm are used and research into those is sparse. Here, we investigated the nanoscale topography and the electrical properties of films less than 10 nm thick deposited by direct RF magnetron sputtering. Alumina films deposited on Si appeared to be uniform and topographically defect free as evaluated by TEM and AFM. However, their composition varied as a function of thickness as measured by XPS. The films were non-stoichiometric as Al content increased with film thickness. While SSRM measured current profiles did not highlight leakage sites or voids in the films, KPFM measured local charge fluctuations across the films deposited on Si and Au surfaces. The density of fluctuation sites decreased with an increase of alumina thickness. An electrodeposition method identified insulation weak spots in the alumina where Cu growths formed on the alumina surface. The growth mechanisms were investigated by TEM and EDX. The density of growths decreased with increased alumina thickness. Defects in the deposited alumina film are expected to be due to its nonstoichiometric nature causing charge variations, which weaken the films electrical insulating capability.
—We present a generalization of the Simultaneous Long-Short (SLS) trading strategy described in recent control literature wherein we allow for different parameters across the short and long sides of the controller; we refer to this new strategy as Generalized SLS (GSLS). Furthermore, we investigate the conditions under which positive gain can be assured within the GSLS setup for both deterministic stock price evolution and geometric Brownian motion. In contrast to existing literature in this area (which places little emphasis on the practical application of SLS strategies), we suggest optimization procedures for selecting the control parameters based on historical data, and we extensively test these procedures across a large number of real stock price trajectories (495 in total). We ﬁnd that the implementation of such optimization procedures greatly improves the performance compared with ﬁxing control parameters, and, indeed, the GSLS strategy outperforms the simpler SLS strategy in general.
Broad advancements in human health, quality of life, and longevity have culminated in an increasingly age diverse population. Over several decades, successive researchers have adopted a generational lens - the categorisation of individuals according to their perceived generation - as a means to better understand this age diversity within the context of the workplace. Several recent studies have focused on the existence of distinct sets of work values (human values expressed in the context of work) across generations and the impact that these differences are likely to have for the management of employees. Much of this extant work has been critiqued for lacking sound theoretical or conceptual underpinnings, or robust empirical evidence. To address these issues, and drawing on two studies using large-scale, multi-country datasets, the research here adopts Mannheim’s (1952) seminal theory of generations and Rudolph and Zacher’s (2016) conceptual Lifespan Model of Generations to empirically explore whether generational differences in work values exist. Because age is the key means by which a generation is typically conceptualised, and since work values comprise human values expressed in the specific context of work, Study 1 investigates age differences in human values using data from the European Social Survey (ESS). Study 2 explores generational differences in work values using the Generations of Talent (GOT) survey, and moves beyond age as the sole identifier of a generation. Results from both studies demonstrated no significant generational differences in human values or work values. contradicting the wellspring of extant discourse. It is argued here that the continued use of a generational lens to explain perceived differences among individuals may represent little more than age stereotyping, and introduce age bias in organisational decision-making with attendant implications for diversity and inclusion.