This doctoral thesis seeks to articulate how visual comparisons may help readers to understand the complexity of ways of seeing in Aidan Higgins's main fictions, Felo de Se (1960), Langrishe, Go Down (1966), Balcony of Europe (first published in 1972, then edited and re-issued in 2010), Bornholm Night-Ferry (1983) and Lions of the Grunewald (1993). In closing, the study also considers the presence of drawings and other visual images in Blind Man's Bluff (2012), Higgins's final publication in his lifetime. A guiding research objective is to counter a common argument in the critical discourse that Higgins's style is compromised by formal deficits. The true breadth and refinement of Higgins's visual descriptions are revealed in this thesis through comparative engagement with texts from art history and aesthetics. This is a significant intervention in the study of Higgins: no such study, integrating specialist knowledge of art historiography in analysing the author's fictional modes of vision, currently exists in the scholarship or criticism. The author was Samuel Beckett's mentee in the 1950s, but is a marginal figure in Irish Studies. His first novel, Langrishe, Go Down , was greeted with a flourish of critical attention and won the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for fiction in 1967. The subsequent, more stylistically experimental texts have been less commercially successful. Higgins's writing is inflected by a pan-European sensibility and international experiences. One of the reasons that Higgins's writing has been under-appreciated on a stylistic level is that his subject matter exceeds the socio-political perspectives that has dominated Irish Studies since the latter half of the twentieth century. Scholars are still catching up with the complex artistic moves of twentieth-century Irish literature. Of the existing scholarship, there is one monograph that heavily deals with Higgins's work: Irish Fiction and Postmodern Doubt: An Analysis of the Epistemological Crisis in Modern Irish Fiction (2004) by Neil Murphy. Aidan Higgins: The Fragility of Form (2010), an edited collection compiled by Murphy and the sole book to date that focuses entirely on Higgins's work, pays tribute to the delicacy of his style. However, much of the extant criticism has reproached his work for its lack of robust formal structuring devices. This doctoral thesis uses a wealth of archival sources, notably including the collection of Ussher's letters housed at the Manuscripts and Archives Research Library at Trinity College, Dublin, which provides original viewpoints that do not exist in any in-depth way in the current secondary literature on Higgins, and which also contains some of the burgeoning writer's juvenilia. Similarly, the inventory of fonds at the University of Victoria in Canada is an invaluable resource. In particular, Higgins's notebooks present an illuminating source for deciphering the emotions and aesthetic states that rest under his artistic proclivities. Relating Higgins's letter writing and his diary and notebook entries to references from art historical theories bolsters a framework for interpreting the wealth of manuscript material.
Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), one of the most common non-communicable diseases in the world, is linked to multi-organ complications. Such complications include cognitive impairment, dementia and depression. These brain health complications have an adverse impact on diabetes outcomes. Given the projected increase in prevalence globally of T2DM and dementia, identifying effective prevention strategies for both, in tandem with timely effective management of brain health complications of diabetes, is an important target. As a first step, this study aimed to establish levels of awareness of the effects of diabetes on brain health among individuals with diabetes and the general public.Method: A narrative review of the literature found no validated survey instrument available to assess diabetes and brain health awareness. For this reason, a systematic review of the literature and a Delphi study were used to develop consensus on (i) potential brain-related complications of diabetes and, (ii) the common modifiable risk factors for T2DM and dementia. Information from this literature review and results of the Delphi study informed the design of the survey measure used in the Diabetes and Brain Health (DBH) study. Following the development of the DBH questionnaire, it was administered by an interviewer to a sample of individuals with diabetes and members of the general population in Ireland, in a cross-sectional study.Results: Thirteen studies out of 9,709 abstracts that were identified in the systematic review, were included in a qualitative synthesis of results. As this review identified mainly observational evidence linking diabetes and brain health, a Delphi study was undertaken as a next step in establishing DBH questionnaire content validity. Of 46 international experts invited to take part in the Delphi study, there was a response rate of 32%. The expert panel reached agreement on memory problems, dementia and depression as brain health complications of diabetes. The panel also reached consensus on the following risk factors for T2DM, also recognised as dementia risk factors: hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity and heavy alcohol consumption. A consensus was not reached on depression, cognitive inactivity, smoking and high cholesterol as T2DM risk factors.In the cross-sectional study, there were 502 adult respondents to the subsequently developed DBH questionnaire; 250 in diabetes group (37% women, mean age 63 +/-14 years) and 252 in general population (51% women, mean age 47 +/-17 years). Among the total group, levels of awareness of memory problems (47%), dementia (35%) and depression (63%) as potential complications of diabetes were low, compared to respondent awareness of kidney (84%) and eye damage (84%). Respondents were 1.5 times more likely to identify that individuals can modify their risk of developing T2DM, compared to being able to modify their risk of developing dementia. Except for depression, the diabetes group attending St James?s Hospital, had significantly higher awareness levels of diabetes complications, including memory problems and dementia, compared to the general population group.Conclusion: These results point to a low level of awareness of the effects of diabetes on brain health among individuals with diabetes and the general population in Ireland. They would suggest a need to expand diabetes education programmes to promote awareness of the link between diabetes and brain health. Public awareness campaigns relating to dementia prevention need to emphasize the role of modifiable risk factors, including T2DM, physical inactivity and obesity, as part of a life-course approach to dementia prevention.
This dissertation addresses questions in the areas of economic history and economics of migration. It consists of introduction, literature review, three empirical research chapters on Irish Migration to the United States at the Age of Mass Migration (1892-1924), and a conclusion. Chapter one is a general introduction of the thesis. Chapter two is a general literature review for the three empirical chapters. Chapter three is a detailed description of the construction of the dataset on Irish migrants who left for Ellis Island, the US (1892-1924). Utilizing the 1901 and 1911 Irish Census Records and the Ellis Island Administrative Records on Irish migrants, I identify the individual Irish migrants in the Censuses. I apply several record linkage strategies for constructing the datasets on Irish migrants based on their county of origin and place of residence reported in the Censuses. I conclude that Irish migrants were more often male, young, literate, Gaelic-speaking and unmarried adults. I find that male migrants were more often engaged in agricultural occupations while female migrants were more often working in service sector. Chapter four, joint with Gaia Narciso and Battista Severgnini, investigates the role of the Great Irish Famine (1845-1850), one of the most lethal starvation in history, on the individuals' migration decisions in the long-run (1901-1924). Applying two different measures for identifying the extent of Famine in the county of origin of the migrants, excess mortality rates and the extent of relief provided in the form of food rations, we find that Famine was a crucial driver of individuals' migration choices. Instrumental variables estimation supports our findings. Finally, we construct a measure of migration networks through the identification of Famine migrants based on six rounds (1850-1910) of the US Census samples. Our results confirm that the migration in the long run was a chain movement since the Famine years. Chapter five examines return migration from the United States for the largest migrant sending country, Ireland, within the period of Mass Migration (1850-1913). This chapter is motivated by the emerging historical research on return migration. I show that around eleven percent of migrants returned home. I measure self-selection of return migrants from the rest of the population. I conclude that return migrants were not different from permanent migrants before leaving Ireland. I further that return migrants who were involved in agriculture and professional occupations, were positively selected from the rest of the population in Ireland, after their return. I also find negative selection of return migrants working in production, from the non-migrant population Finally, I link the return decisions to the land reforms of 1908 in Ireland. Chapter six provides concluding remarks.
We present Surface Evolver evaluations of the difference in energy between face-centred cubic (fcc) and hexagonal close-packed (hcp) foams in the usual idealized model, for liquid fractions ranging from the dry to the wet limit. The difference vanishes in both limits, and favours hcp for all intermediate liquid fractions, as has been proven. The maximum relative energy difference is very small, of the order of 10−5. The asymptotic dependence on liquid fraction is non-analytic in both limits: we present explicit expressions in both cases, derived from first principles. They have been obtained from identifying node interactions (dry limit) and contact interactions (wet limit) as the respective sources for energy differences between fcc and hcp. The wet limit is well described by Morse–Witten theory which has proven to be very powerful for the analytic computation of the surface energy of slightly deformed bubbles.
The Clocktower building in TU Dublin's Grangegorman campus was built in 1816 and originally called the Richmond Penitentiary. It housed the Dublin Cholera Hospital when the cholera epidemic was at its height in 1832.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 07/01/2021 [Cu(4-phenylpyridine)4(trifluoromethanesulfonate)2] is a new Werner complex that exhibits switching behaviour between non-porous (apohost) and porous (guest-loaded) phases upon exposure to o-xylene but not when exposed to other C8 isomers. High o-xylene selectivity (>6) vs. the other C8 isomers was observed from binary mixtures, only the third occurrence across all sorbent types.
The effect of cooling on the degree of crystallinity, solid-state and dissolution properties of multi-component hot-melt extruded solid dispersions [SD] is of great interest for the successful formulation of amorphous SDs and is an area that is unreported, especially in the context of improving the stability of these specific systems. The thermal solid-state properties, degree of crystallinity, drug–polymer interactions, solubility and physical stability over time were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction [XRPD] and hyper differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] confirmed that indomethacin [INM] was converted to the amorphous state; however, the addition of poloxamer 407 [P407] had a significant effect on the degree of crystallinity and the solubility of the SD formulations. Spectroscopy studies identified the mechanism of interaction and solubility studies, showing a higher dissolution rate compared to amorphous and pure INM in pH 1.2 with a kinetic solubility of 20.63 μg/mL and 34.7 μg/mL after 3 and 24 h. XRPD confirmed that INM remained amorphous after 5 months stability testing in solid solutions with Poly(vinylpyrrolidoneco- vinyl acetate) [PVP VA64] and Plasdone S-630 [PL-S630]. Although cooling had a significant effect on the degree of crystallinity and on solubility of INM, the cooling method used did not have any significant effect on the amorphous stability of INM over time.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 07/01/2021 Acetylene (C2H2) capture is a step in a number of industrial processes but comes with a high energy footprint. Whereas physisorbents have the potential to reduce this energy footprint, they are handicapped by generally poor selectivity vs. other relevant gases such as CO2 and C2H4. In the case of CO2, the respective physicochemical properties are so similar that traditional physisorbents such as zeolites, silica and activated carbons cannot differentiate well between CO2 and C2H2. Herein we report that a family of three isostructural, ultramicroporous (< 7 Å) diamondoid metal-organic frameworks, [Cu(TMBP)X] (TMBP = 3,3',5,5'tetramethyl-4,4'-bipyrazole), TCuX (X = Cl, Br, I), offer new benchmark C2H2/CO2 separation selectivity at ambient temperature and pressure. We attribute this performance to a new type of strong binding site for C2H2. Specifically, halogen…HC interactions coupled with other noncovalent in a tight binding site is C2H2-specific vs. CO2. The binding site is distinct from those found in previous benchmark sorbents, which are based upon open metal sites or electrostatic interactions enabled by inorganic fluoro or oxo anions.
The full text of this article will not be available in ULIR until the embargo expires on the 15/07/2021 The sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction at the anode severely limits the hydrogen production at the cathode in water spitting systems. While electrocatalytic systems based on cheap and earth-abundant metal copper catalysts have been promising for water oxidation under basic conditions, only very few examples with high overpotential can be operated under acidic or neutral conditions, even though hydrogen evolution in the latter case is much easier. This work presents an efficient and robust Cu-based molecular catalyst, which self-assembles as a periodic film from its precursors under aqueous conditions on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE). This film catalyzes the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under neutral conditions with impressively low overpotential. In controlled potential electrolysis, a stable catalytic current of 1.0 mA/cm2 can be achieved at only 2.0 V (vs. RHE) and no remarkable decrease in the catalytic current is observed even after prolonged bulk electrolysis. The catalyst displays first-order kinetics and a single site mechanism for water oxidation with a TOF (kcat) of 0.6 s-1. DFT calculations are performed to study the OER behavior of the periodic Cu(TCA)2 (HTCA = 1-mesityl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4 carboxylic acid) film and reveal that TCA defects within the film create Cu(I) active sites which can provide a low overpotential route for OER. This route involves Cu(I), Cu(II)-OH, Cu(III)=O and Cu(II)-OOH intermediates and is enabled at a potential of 1.54 V (vs. RHE), requiring an overpotential of 0.31 V. This corresponds well with an overpotential of ~ 0.29 V obtained experimentally for the grown catalytic film after 100 CV cycles at pH=6. However, to reach a higher current density of 1 mA cm−2, an overpotential of 0.72 V is required.