The catalogue of the solo exhibition of paintings by the Irish-based artist Lucy Doyle shown at the Doorway Gallery in Dublin during May 2017. Called ?Feast? the collection of paintings were inspired by her daughter?s wedding. She writes: ?I started work on this exhibition in autumn 2015, directly after my daughter?s wedding, which we celebrated at home, which took up months of preparation, working on the garden etc. From out of all the excitement and celebrations, ideas for paintings began to take shape. Flower girls, gardenscapes, food-laden tables, and flower arrangements became a rich source of inspiration for the work I was planning to do for my next show. And so ?Feast? emerged. ? Since graduating from Art College in 1982 Lucy Doyle has held a solo show every 1 - 2 years. Over these past 30 or more years, she has developed her own very unique and personal style, which is about colour and textures. Her compositions are constructed within a shallow space, in which she challenges the conventions of perspective, in order to celebrate the surface decorative qualities and two dimensionality of the canvas. She writes: ?I like to keep an open and relaxed mind when it comes to my subject matter. This enables me to be very eclectic, sourcing ideas from the place and people around me, or from books, films, paintings, from art history or simply a feeling, a whim, nostalgia or even a mood. When it comes to composing and constructing a painting from an idea, I like to incorporate an element of experimentation. I achieve this by trying out new ways to apply the paint. In Feast I have explored different coloured grounds within one composition, from terre verte to cadmium red, as well as my old favourite rose and ochre hues, hopefully finding different ways to represent my idea of space and form. By pushing the boundaries and limits of my style as far as I can go, I attempt to keep my work as alive, vital and as fresh as possible. When it comes to the act of painting itself, and when I finally get out the paints and start laying out the composition, I very quickly let the interplay of colour and textures that are created in the moment take president. Whatever it takes to produce a balanced harmonious painting, where the colours remain vibrant and stand alone, is in essence what I am all about. At this stage, previous plans of content and narrative might be shelved or compromised to the betterment of the whole. I work in impasto using a palette knife which keeps me in touch with the pure physicality of the paint in all its tactile, colour- infused buttery beauty.?
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed ubiquitously throughout the body. Thus, while respiratory manifestations dominate much of cystic fibrosis (CF) care, there are prominent multi-organ manifestations and comorbidities. In the general population, the number of comorbidities increases with aging. Few illnesses have experienced such a dramatic improvement in survival as CF, which has been transformed from an illness of childhood death to one of adult survival. Hence, as longevity increases in CF, it is paralleled by an increasing number of patients with multicomplex comorbidities availing of care from adult CF multi-disciplinary teams. This review gives an overview of the traditional CF associated comorbidities and those emerging in an aging adult cohort. While historically the treatment of CF focused on the consequences of CFTR dysfunction, the recent advent of CFTR modulators with the potential to enhance CFTR function represents an opportunity to potentially reverse or delay the development of some of the comorbidities associated with CF. Where evidence is available for the impact of CFTR modulatory therapy, namely ivacaftor on comorbidities in CF, this is highlighted.
It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to n-3 long-chain fatty acids protects against asthma and other allergy-related diseases later in childhood. The extent to which fish intake in pregnancy protects against child asthma and rhinitis symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether fish and seafood consumption in pregnancy is associated with childhood wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We pooled individual data from 60 774 mother-child pairs participating in 18 European and US birth cohort studies. Information on wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence was collected using validated questionnaires. The time periods of interest were: infancy (0-2 years), preschool age (3-4 years), and school age (5-8 years). We used multivariable generalized models to assess associations of fish and seafood (other than fish) consumption during pregnancy with child respiratory outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effects meta-analyses. The median fish consumption during pregnancy ranged from 0.44 times/week in The Netherlands to 4.46 times/week in Spain. Maternal fish intake during pregnancy was not associated with offspring wheeze symptoms in any age group nor with the risk of child asthma [adjusted meta-analysis relative risk (RR) per 1-time/week = 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.05)] and allergic rhinitis at school age (RR = 1.01, 0.99-1.03). These results were consistently found in further analyses by type of fish and seafood consumption and in sensitivity analyses. We found no evidence supporting a protective association of fish and seafood consumption during pregnancy with offspring symptoms of wheeze, asthma and allergic rhinitis from infancy to mid childhood.
Comprehensive characterization of nanomaterials for medical applications is a challenging and complex task due to the multitude of parameters which need to be taken into consideration in a broad range of conditions. Routine methods such as dynamic light scattering or nanoparticle tracking analysis provide some insight into the physicochemical properties of particle dispersions. For nanomedicine applications the information they supply can be of limited use. For this reason, there is a need for new methodologies and instruments that can provide additional data on nanoparticle properties such as their interactions with surfaces. Nanophotonic force microscopy has been shown as a viable method for measuring the force between surfaces and individual particles in the nano-size range. Here we outline a further application of this technique to measure the size of single particles and based on these measurement build the distribution of a sample. We demonstrate its efficacy by comparing the size distribution obtained with nanophotonic force microscopy to established instruments, such as dynamic light scattering and differential centrifugal sedimentation. Our results were in good agreement to those observed with all other instruments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the methodology developed in this work can be used to study complex particle mixtures and the surface alteration of materials. For all cases studied, we were able to obtain both the size and the interaction potential of the particles with a surface in a single measurement.
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are clinically promising to repair damaged articular cartilage. This study investigated TWIST1, an important transcriptional regulator in mesenchymal lineages, in BMSC chondrogenesis. We hypothesized that downregulation of TWIST1 expression is required for in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Indeed, significant downregulation of TWIST1 was observed in murine skeletal progenitor cells during limb development (N = 3 embryos), and during chondrogenic differentiation of culture-expanded human articular chondrocytes (N = 3 donors) and isolated adult human BMSCs (N = 7 donors), consistent with an inhibitory effect of TWIST1 expression on chondrogenic differentiation. Silencing of TWIST1 expression in BMSCs by siRNA, however, did not improve chondrogenic differentiation potential. Interestingly, additional investigation revealed that downregulation of TWIST1 in chondrogenic BMSCs is preceded by an initial upregulation. Similar upregulation is observed in non-chondrogenic BMSCs (N = 5 donors); however, non-chondrogenic cells fail to downregulate TWIST1 expression thereafter, preventing their chondrogenic differentiation. This study describes for the first time endogenous TWIST1 expression during in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of human BMSCs, demonstrating dynamic regulation of TWIST1 expression whereby upregulation and then downregulation of TWIST1 expression are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Elucidation of the molecular regulation of, and by, TWIST1 will provide targets for optimization of BMSC chondrogenic differentiation culture.
Respite services play an important role in supporting older adults and their carers. When an older person is unable to fully represent themselves, provision of respite care relies on effective information-sharing between carers and respite staff. This study aimed to explore, from carers' perspectives, the scope, quality and fit of information-sharing between carers, older people and respite services. An explorative, cross-sectional qualitative study involving a purposive sample of 24 carers, recruited via carer support groups and community groups in voluntary organisations, was undertaken in North East Scotland. Data were collected from August 2013 to September 2014, with participants taking part in a focus group or individual interview. Data were analysed systematically using the Framework Approach. The multiple accounts elicited from carers identified how barriers and facilitators to information-sharing with respite services changed over time across three temporal phases: 'Reaching a point', 'Trying it out' and 'Settled in'. Proactive information-sharing about accessibility and eligibility for respite care, and assessment of carers' needs in their own right, were initially important; as carers and older people moved on to try services out, time and space to develop mutual understandings and negotiate care arrangements came to the fore; then, once shared expectations had been established, carers' chief concerns were around continuity of care and maintaining good interpersonal relationships. The three temporal phases also impacted on which modes of information-sharing were available to, and worked best for, carers as well as on carers' perceptions of how information and communication technologies should be utilised. This study highlights the need for respite staff to take proactive, flexible approaches to working with carers and to make ongoing efforts to engage with carers, and older people, throughout the months and years of them utilising respite services. Information and communication technologies have potential to enhance information-sharing but traditional approaches will remain important.
Tumour metastasis in the lymphatics is a crucial step in the progression of breast cancer. The dynamics by which breast cancer cells (BCCs) travel in the lymphatics remains poorly understood. The goal of this work is to develop a model capable of predicting the shear stresses metastasising BCCs experience using numerical and experimental techniques. This paper models the fluidic transport of large particles ([Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the particle diameter and W is the channel width) subjected to lymphatic flow conditions ([Formula: see text]), in a [Formula: see text] microchannel. The feasibility of using the dynamic fluid body interaction (DFBI) method to predict particle motion was assessed, and particle tracking experiments were performed. The experiments found that particle translational velocity decreased from the undisturbed fluid velocity with increasing particle size (5-14% velocity lag for [Formula: see text]). DFBI simulations were found to better predict particle behaviour than theoretical predictions; however, mesh restrictions in the near-wall region ([Formula: see text]) result in computationally expensive models. The simulations were in good agreement with the experiments ([Formula: see text] difference) across the channel ([Formula: see text]), with differences up to 25% in the near-wall region. Particles experience a range of shear stresses (0.002-0.12 Pa) and spatial shear gradients ([Formula: see text]) depending on their size and radial position. The predicted shear gradients are far in excess of values associated with BCC apoptosis ([Formula: see text]). Increasing our understanding of the shear stress magnitudes and gradients experienced by BCCs could be leveraged to elucidate whether a particular BCC size or location exists that encourages metastasis within the lymphatics.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is associated with a significant increase in mortality compared to the general population, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) the leading cause of death. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence and treatment of modifiable CV risk factors and history of CVD in those with RA and those without arthritis in Ireland. Data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), a population-representative cohort study of people in Ireland aged 50 or over, was used. Participants with RA (n=457) were twice as likely to be obese (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.99 to 2.06) compared to those without arthritis (n=4,063). Participants with RA were also more likely to be physically inactive (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.69 to 1.76) and taking antihypertensive medication than those without arthritis. Exercise can have a beneficial impact on CVD and specific interventions to increase physical activity in those with RA may be warranted.