The Digital Humanities Summer Institute gives students and scholars a chance to broaden their knowledge of the Digital Humanities within a feasible timeframe. The DHSI Colloquium was first founded by Diane Jakacki and Cara Leitch to act as a means of supporting graduates who wanted to be a part of such a gathering. The Colloquium has grown in recent years, to the point where it is now seen as an important part of the field’s conference calendar for emerging and established scholars alike, but it remains a non-threatening space in which students, scholars, and practitioners can share their ideas. This issue is testament to that diversity, as well as the strength of the research being presented at the Colloquium. It includes Scott B. Weingart and Nickoal Eichmann-Kalwara, Mary Borgo, William B. Kurtz, and John Barber. “What’s Under the Big Tent?: A Study of ADHO Conference Abstracts,” which portrays the discipline as one which is dominated by specific groups and practices. Using the Victorian Women Writers Project as a case-study, Mary Borgo treats models for the sustainable growth of TEI-based digital resources. William B. Kurtz details his experiences working on a digital initiative, in this instance, Founders Online: Early Access, and engages with the need for such projects to hold broader public appeal. John Barber’s “Radio Nouspace: Sound, Radio, Digital Humanities,” describes the curation of sound within the context of radio, and how such activity connects to creative digital scholarship. Together, these articles represent the purpose of facilitating a community comprised of divergent interests and perspectives, a community which can often be positively dissonant.
As we become increasingly dependent on information systems, personal identification and profiling systems have received an increasing interest, either for reasons of personali- sation or security. Biometric profiling is one means of identification which can be achieved by analysing something the user is or does (e.g., a fingerprint, signature, face, voice). This Ph.D. research focuses on behavioural biometrics, a subset of biometrics that is concerned with the patterns of conscious or unconscious behaviour of a person, involving their style, preference, skills, knowledge, motor-skills in any domain. In this work I explore the cre- ation of user profiles to be applied in dynamic user identification based on the biometric pat- terns observed during normal Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) by continuously logging and tracking the corresponding computer events. Unlike most of the biometrics systems that need special hardware devices (e.g. finger print reader), HCI-based identification sys- tems can be implemented using regular input devices (mouse or keyboard) and they do not require the user to perform specific tasks to train the system. Specifically, three components are studied in-depth: mouse dynamics, keystrokes dynamics and GUI based user behaviour. In this work I will describe my research on HCI-based behavioural biometrics, discuss the features and models I proposed for each component along with the result of experiments. In addition, I will describe the methodology and datasets I gathered using my LoggerMan application that has been developed specifically to passively gather behavioural biometric data for evaluation. Results show that normal Human-Computer Interaction reveals behavioural information with discriminative power sufficient to be used for user modelling for identification purposes.
Altered platelet function has been proposed as an underlying mechanism to explain increased risk of myocardial infarction in people living with HIV associated with use of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir (ABC). We aimed to examine changes in platelet biomarkers in people living with HIV switching from ABC. In a prospective, 48-week substudy of virally suppressed HIV-1-positive subjects randomized to remain on ABC/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) or switch to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, we measured soluble glycoprotein VI (sGPVI), soluble P-selectin, soluble CD40 ligand and von Willebrand factor in plasma collected over time and assessed differences using mixed effect models. Of 312 randomized participants, 310 were included in the analysis. Mean (SD) age 46.4 (9.3) years, 262 (85%) men and 201 (65%) white. At baseline, there was no significant between-group difference in sGPVI [tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine 3.75 (0.25) versus ABC/3TC 3.61 (0.22) ng/ml, P = 0.69]. Greater increases in sGPVI from baseline to week 48 occurred in those switched from ABC/3TC (effect size +0.57 ng/ml; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.94; P = 0.003). There was no significant baseline difference or change overtime in soluble P-selectin, soluble CD40 ligand or von Willebrand factor between groups. The significant increases in sGPVI that occur with a switch from ABC/3TC are suggestive of changes in platelet function centred on platelet/collagen interactions and potentially represent an underlying mechanism to explain increased risk of myocardial infarction with ABC.
The death of an infant during a pregnancy is profoundly traumatic, both for the parents and the involved healthcare professionals. Most research focuses on the impact of antenatal stillbirth with very little research examining the specific impact an intrapartum fetal death has on obstetricians. The aim of this study was to provide an in-depth qualitative exploration of the attitudes and responses that Irish Obstetricians have following direct involvement with an intrapartum fetal death. Qualitative semi- structured interviews were used. Interpretative phenomenology was used for data analysis. The setting was a tertiary university maternity unit in Ireland with 8200 deliveries per year. Ten obstetricians were purposively sampled. The main outcome measures were the attitudes and responses of Irish obstetricians following exposure to an intrapartum death. Obstetricians were profoundly and negatively affected by a personal involvement with an intrapartum death. Analysis of the data revealed two superordinate themes; the doctor as a person, and supporting each other. The doctor as person was characterised by two subordinate themes; emotional impact and frustration. Supporting each other was also characterised by two subordinate themes; an unmet need and incidental support and what might work. Obstetric doctors who are directly involved in an intrapartum death are the second victims of this event and this is something that needs to be acknowledged; by the public, by the healthcare system, by the media and by the doctors themselves. The development of effective emotional support interventions for all obstetricians is highly important. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
New technologies present new ethical dilemmas. Our ethical intuitions may mislead us in relation to new technologies such as nuclear power, vaccines, GMOs and assistive reproductive technologies (ART). Between 1999 and 2008 the number of ART treatment cycles increased by 265% in Ireland. The implications and potentials of such technologies are profound - challenging existing understanding of humans' relationships to reproduction. Because such technologies are comparatively unregulated, and their use has only been occurring for a single generation, detailed investigation of how awareness of ART influences understanding of personal fertility is needed. Data from a general Irish population of varied ages and both sexes (N = 611) were collected through an online survey which included demographics, knowledge of fertility, knowledge of ART and personal fertility. Latent class analysis revealed a typology of five groups of responders to ART distinguished by their attitudes and knowledge of this technology. These groups are labelled as 'Worried Yet Willing', 'Live and Let Live', 'Disengaged', 'Judgemental' and 'Conflicted'. Responses to the introduction of ART in Ireland fall into at least five distinct groups. Understanding of the distinguishing features of these types of responders is important for fertility healthcare professionals in terms of service development and delivery. Implications for the direction of future related research is discussed.
Stress is a major risk factor in the development of various psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. The use of stress paradigms in preclinical contexts is essential to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. However, they are not without their limitations and in this commentary, we have examined some of the practical issues associated with their use. We also highlight some of the latest techniques to identify their neuromolecular correlates as well as the potentially important and integrative role of computational neuroscience. Finally, we share our perspective on future directions in the field of preclinical stress research.
To evaluate the costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of complex workplace dietary interventions, involving nutrition education and system-level dietary modification, from the perspective of healthcare providers and employers. Single-study economic evaluation of a cluster-controlled trial (Food Choice at Work (FCW) study) with 1-year follow-up. Four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Ireland. 517 randomly selected employees (18-65 years) from four workplaces. Cost data were obtained from the FCW study. Nutrition education included individual nutrition consultations, nutrition information (traffic light menu labelling, posters, leaflets and emails) and presentations. System-level dietary modification included menu modification (restriction of fat, sugar and salt), increase in fibre, fruit discounts, strategic positioning of healthier alternatives and portion size control. The combined intervention included nutrition education and system-level dietary modification. No intervention was implemented in the control. The primary outcome was an improvement in health-related quality of life, measured using the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 5 Levels questionnaire. The secondary outcome measure was reduction in absenteeism, which is measured in monetary amounts. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (Monte Carlo simulation) assessed parameter uncertainty. The system-level intervention dominated the education and combined interventions. When compared with the control, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (€101.37/quality-adjusted life-year) is less than the nationally accepted ceiling ratio, so the system-level intervention can be considered cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicates there is some decision uncertainty surrounding this, arising from uncertainty surrounding the differences in effectiveness. These results are reiterated when the secondary outcome measure is considered in a cost-benefit analysis, whereby the system-level intervention yields the highest net benefit (€56.56 per employee). System-level dietary modification alone offers the most value per improving employee health-related quality of life and generating net benefit for employers by reducing absenteeism. While system-level dietary modification strategies are potentially sustainable obesity prevention interventions, future research should include long-term outcomes to determine if improvements in outcomes persist. ISRCTN35108237; Post-results.
To commence injury prevention efforts, it is necessary to understand the magnitude of the injury problem. No systematic reviews have yet investigated the extent of injuries in field hockey, despite the popularity of the sport worldwide. Our objective was to describe the rate and severity of injuries in field hockey and investigate their characteristics. We conducted electronic searches in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL. Prospective cohort studies were included if they were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal and observed all possible injuries sustained by field hockey players during the period of the study. The risk of bias score of the 22 studies included ranged from three to nine of a possible ten. In total, 12 studies (55%) reported injuries normalized by field hockey exposure. Injury rates ranged from 0.1 injuries (in school-aged players) to 90.9 injuries (in Africa Cup of Nations) per 1000 player-hours and from one injury (in high-school women) to 70 injuries (in under-21 age women) per 1000 player-sessions. Studies used different classifications for injury severity, but-within studies-injuries were included mostly in the less severe category. The lower limbs were most affected, and contusions/hematomas and abrasions were common types of injury. Contact injuries are common, but non-contact injuries are also a cause for concern. Considerable heterogeneity meant it was not possible to draw conclusive findings on the extent of the rate and severity of injuries. Establishing the extent of sports injury is considered the first step towards prevention, so there is a need for a consensus on injury surveillance in field hockey.