machine translating computational linguistics language linguistics english machine translation statistical machine translation machine learning state of the art lexical functional grammar translation quality english language semantics human irish irish language language learning second language acquisition natural language processing translating and interpreting philosophy psychology target language children lfg structures teaching school of celtic studies source language translation phrase-based statistical machine translation communication education german language information retrieval language development literature artificial intelligence automatic annotation phrase-based smt speech language acquisition approaches example-based machine translation intelligent content & communications large-scale natural language german learning machine translation systems penn-ii humans parsing training data ireland role and reference grammar post-editing resources word alignment corpus linguistics female french generation grammar language pairs morphology patterns people smt digital humanities individual meaning Movement ph.d. trinity college dublin second language learning