machine translating language computational linguistics machine translation english linguistics statistical machine translation machine learning state of the art translation quality english language human irish language lexical functional grammar irish natural language processing semantics second language acquisition translation language learning translating and interpreting philosophy psychology target language children teaching education phrase-based statistical machine translation structures lfg source language training data artificial intelligence information retrieval literature post-editing school of celtic studies speech german language approaches german communication language acquisition language development automatic annotation language pairs large-scale phrase-based smt smt machine translation systems natural language semantic example-based machine translation intelligent content & communications parsing french humans ireland learning penn-ii ph.d. trinity college dublin role and reference grammar speech and language translation memory word alignment grammar languages morphology patterns resources female Movement second language learning corpus linguistics digital humanities