humans female male adult ireland middle aged aged diagnosis surgery etiology therapy risk factors epidemiology medicine and health sciences complications pathology patients adverse effects psychology prevention & control adolescent aged, 80 and over pregnancy physiopathology statistics & numerical data physiology treatment outcome prospective studies therapeutic use this review questionnaires blood organization & administration young adult standards follow up systematic review cancer treatment drug therapy retrospective studies breast cancer child mortality administration & dosage metabolism time factors public health nursing animals risk assessment prevalence clinical practice Follow-Up Studies blood pressure primary care education health care cross-sectional studies management Odds Ratio quality of life attitude of health personnel cohort studies radiography meta-analysis chronic disease body mass index prognosis health knowledge, attitudes, practice cohort study instrumentation incidence infant, newborn clinical