humans female male adult ireland middle aged aged diagnosis risk factors surgery etiology therapy medicine and health sciences epidemiology patients complications pathology adverse effects pregnancy psychology adolescent prevention & control aged, 80 and over physiopathology statistics & numerical data physiology treatment outcome this review prospective studies cancer systematic review therapeutic use blood follow up questionnaires young adult organization & administration standards breast cancer treatment public health drug therapy child mortality retrospective studies metabolism administration & dosage nursing time factors clinical practice primary care health care quality of life risk assessment prevalence animals blood pressure Follow-Up Studies Odds Ratio education management cohort study cross-sectional studies body mass index chronic disease health cohort studies meta-analysis attitude of health personnel radiography colorectal cancer prognosis prostate cancer health knowledge, attitudes, practice incidence