physics nanoscience & materials phase thin films optical energy ph.d. trinity college dublin semiconductors lasers optical communication physics, ph.d. optics emission space optical properties room temperature surface high resolution magnetic field materials two-dimensional experimental density functional theory photonics x-ray physical sciences and mathematics single silicon refractive index condensed matter physics quantum quantum dots polarization mass experimental physics formation electric field electrical and computer engineering astrophysics and astronomy ground state low-temperature magnetic properties mathematical physics measurement x-ray diffraction density nanowires experimental data parameters absorption iii-v semiconductors 1.3 physical sciences three-dimensional cm(-1) electronic structure laser mathematics behavior magnetic fields detection graphene nanotechnology spectroscopy chemistry observations Phase Transition symmetry electron evolution low energy electronic & electrical engineering atomic, molecular and chemical physics temperature dependence theoretical engineering