humans female male psychology neuroscience adult schizophrenia diagnosis brain ireland mental health patients follow up middle aged physiology this review genetics adolescent meta-analysis systematic review risk factors depression psychiatry magnetic resonance imaging aged amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatment epidemiology bipolar disorder therapy pathology physiopathology young adult longitudinal study Mental Disorders older adults ageing functional magnetic resonance imaging Odds Ratio dementia white matter attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (adhd), etiology multiple sclerosis medicine and health sciences people genome-wide association study psychotic disorders child mental health services psychiatric status rating scales clinical practice complications logistic regression cohort study genes & society psychotherapy cognition questionnaires neuropsychological tests statistics & numerical data cognitive impairment prevalence reaction time Sample Size genotype psychosis genome-wide association studies mental illness prefrontal cortex randomised controlled trial stroke case-control studies alzheimer's disease Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity